Let the city and this show dazzle you and push your company forward. RECon is a universal global convention for the shopping center industry that provides amazing business connections and offers an exclusive educational opportunity.
This show welcomes more than 32, attendees from around the world. Come into contact with specialist and like-minded professionals in the exclusive networking events that are all over the show floor.
Find the service you need, such as investment avenues, realty services and land development technology systems. Book a stand and also get in touch with us.
We will make your stay at RECon easier by helping you create the stand you want. Remember, this trade show is supported by the most prestigious business-makers in the industry.
Get informed and influenced by the best! The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons gives out excellent pieces of advice to prevent falls at home, how to prepare for a surgery and many more other orthopedic treatments.
Helping the nation be safe and healthy, starting from the bone, this show brings over 14, national and international surgeons.
Hosted in Las Vegas, the best surgeons discuss important topics in the sector, analyze and solve problems as they are able to push the industry forward in the best way possible,after all, that is their main goal.
Book a stand and talk to us. You are able to receive the top five stand designers and builders in the area, all under no charge. We want the best for you at the AAOS!
By now, it is a well known fact that MINExpo International is the cutting-edge trades show for every sector in the mining industry.
Exclusively dedicated to launch products, show off their coolest designs and inform us on the technological advances and market development currently in the field.
Join us by showing you the most ideal way to showcase all your products. As this event only happens every four year, it is worth the way. They also have in-depth business meetings where everyone in the sector is invited.
Let us help you show your best face at MINExpo, it is a star event to the calendar and you must take advantages of its benefits.
IBS Las Vegas is a leading trade show for the ever-growing beauty industry. With countless novelties happening all throughout the year, this is the right place for you to find everything you need in the sector.
The stands are buzzing with product launches, state-of-the-art techniques and captivating backdrop designs.
Each stand is the face of business it represents, so they make sure that it is well-organized and detailed-oriented for the public.
Add your stand at IBS and we will help you discover the right design for you. Between having your booth here and participating in ongoing workshops including educational classes, your company will propel even higher.
There are many advantages of having your brand in this event, starting with wanting to learn new skills to welcoming 20, beauty professionals that want to know more about the industry.
These career-driven salon owners are looking to find the most glamorous and distinctive products there are in the industry. Not only that, also teaming up with designers, providers and other companies to expand future business projects.
With our help, we will direct you to the leading stand designers and builders in Las Vegas. Gain experience, try the new merchandise, stock up on supplies and let your brand be known by the best in the beauty industry.
FN Platform is the international platform where footwear leaders and innovators emerge together to extend the industry of shoes.
Stands are uniquely designed to keep up with the times and to expose the best out of each brand. Talk to us today and be part of this amazing show.
Be sure to check this event out. You will be able to find everything you need in the sector. Whether it is you are a newbie or an old pro in the tool department, The National Hardware Show is the leading trade fair for you.
Held in Las Vegas, you are able to find home improvement tools, DYI kits, industrial tools and everything else in between.
Stands are built with enough space to display all their top products, provide the opportunity for hands-on activities and make special deals on the spot.
All lined up with precision to take advantage of every centimeter around them, it is an impressive sight to see. Fully organized into categories, each booth is clearly well taken care of.
This outstanding show has nine different topics all-together. The inspiring upcoming entrepreneurs and inventors all take part of this show, allowing the public and the big companies to interact and benefit from the newest products and ideas in the making.
Meet up with more than fellow colleagues on the show-floor. Contact us for further information on stand designers and builders in Las Vegas.
As its fairgrounds gets filled with quality choices and all rankings of price tags, it continues to expand its roots by bringing together tens of thousands of attendees from every side of the market.
Latest designs, outstanding layouts and cool storage places for all the latest products is what you can see here. Held in Las Vegas twice annually, it is the best trade show of its kind.
Book stores, toys stores, fashion boutiques, department store and much more. Plus, it comes with unique merchandise that will set your business apart.
Talk to us and we will help you find the right stand designer for you. At Power-gen International in Las Vegas, you can find all that you need in the power generation world.
From the most innovative technologies to further business deals, it covers every aspect of the industry.
You can have ongoing networking sessions and check out seminars that will help push your business forward. As 22, trade visitors from all over the world fill up this fairground, you can bet that there is no better venue to benefit from.
Check this five day event that has over 70 conference sessions, various panel discussions and much more. Book your stand today and contact us.
By doing so, you will find the best stand designers and builders in Las Vegas. You can find the best stand designs, technical trends, business approaches and continue with the networking buzz of the industry.
It is the show to go to because it covers it all: There is no better pace where you can benefit from a five day show that is filled with 70 conference sessions, panel discussions and various networking events.
Join in to be well informed of every area of the market. Book your stand today and make your brand be seen by hundreds of professionals.
Contact us to discover the best stand builders and designers in Las Vegas. Being held once a year, it is the essential trade show to meet plenty of manufactures and suppliers.
Over 2, exhibitors that showcase their best work, you can network with business promoters, vendors and clients.
This event has made possible for start-up companies reach a high success rate around the world. As both business-owners and its clients grow every year, be sure to check out its fairground and participate.
As you reserve your stand, contact us today. Talk to us about your design ideas. With the help of our specialists, you will receive five proposals from the best stand builders and designers in the area.
IWCE is an annual event for the communication and technology sector. As it presents exhibitors and more than 7, professional trade visitors, it is a great occasion to reinforce your brand while networking with the biggest companies.
At this event, a diverse group of industry professionals participate from all around the world. Book your stand space at their official website and contact us.
By doing so, our specialists will assist you in finding the top stand designers and builders in Las Vegas. We are sure that you will be pleased with our results.
As one of the most popular trade shows of the communications industry, the National Association of Broadcasters hosts approximately 1, different exhibitors each year.
With over , square feet of exhibition space, the show has plenty of room for you to book your ideal stand. Additionally, with an abundance of various activities and events occurring at the same time as the show, NAB becomes more and more attractive to visitors and attendees from all over the world.
Do not hesitate to book your stand at this annual event, and look to nEventum for more information on booking the best stand for you and your company.
Magic is the trendiest fashion show that is celebrated twice a year in Las Vegas. It presents to us fashion for all ages and sizes. Including apparel, footwear and accessories.
This event has everything we need for the fashion industry, like finding out about the latest styles, talking to the biggest designers and discovering start up companies that bring their own touch to the industry.
Talk to us today to help you find the best stand for this spectacular event. Your brand will be seen across the world as the whole event is broad-casted through their website.
We will help you find the best companies in Las Vegas to create your ideal stand. Discover the trend-setting technologies in CES Las Vegas, where the sophisticated high class companies meet start-up entrepreneurs and together form a great mix of new ideas and future projects.
There are 3, exhibitors,. As the leading company, CEA hosts the show, they present to us countless benefits to join. Plan your stay in this event, contact us for more information on stand builders, contractors and designers.
Pack Expo Las Vegas unites over 1, suppliers, 30, interested buyers, 5, international companies from countries and more than 27, visitors worldwide.
It is an event that is all about the latest in packaging and manufacturing. The biggest brands participate and make the experience a positive one, bringing you innovations, energy, getting in touch with clients and competitors while coming up with new plans for the future.
Aquatec USA, under the Water quality Association WQA held an annual convention and exhibition that connects technologies, know-how, education, training, networking and business opportunities to multiple water industries.
WQA Aquatech USA includes educational sessions and networking with industry professionals in addition of the opportunity of checking the latest products on the trade show floor, everything to help your business.
Whether if you are a manufacturer, a supplier or you are simply involved with a product or service related to the treatment, commercial or residential water industry, you must be an exhibitor.
The City that Never Sleeps is true for business as well as entertainment. Far beneath the bright lights and the swirling euphoria of the casino business is a tradeshow industry that is going strong.
As a matter of fact, the entertainment industry and the tradeshow industry go hand-in-hand, as many Fortune businesses choose to cement deals in Las Vegas for whatever reason.
If you are in competition in Las Vegas , then you need the best Las Vegas exhibition stand that you can have.
We are the company that can procure this for you. We have solidified relationships with the top exhibition stand providers in the city of Las Vegas.
You do not have to go through the phone book and call each and every company looking for the perfect exhibition stand.
With one phone call to our company, we can have the top five proposals for your exhibition in your email within a matter of days.
We can provide this service for you free of charge because we have built our relationships with these Las Vegas exhibition stand companies over many years.
We know who to go to for every situation. We have encountered many real-time emergencies that we have been able to overcome, and we will put this experience to good use when we do business with you.
Call us today if you are looking to make the best impression possible at your Las Vegas tradeshow. There is little time to waste: Your competition is getting ahead of you each second that you delay.
We cannot wait to help you create the best impression that you possibly can and get your product out in front of a worldwide audience!
As fun as Las Vegas can be, it is actually quite serious when it comes to its tradeshow industry. Some of the biggest tradeshows in the world come to Las Vegas because they know that it is the best place to close a deal.
Some of the biggest businesses in the world come to Las Vegas because they know that a good showing here can solidify the placement of a product in a global way.
We have detailed some of the most important trade shows coming up in Las Vegas in the coming year. Visitors can see here an extensive selection of jewelry.
Las Vegas may be the first place that gamblers think of when they want to have a good time, but it is also home to some of the finest businessmen in the world.
A Las Vegas tradeshow can mean instant worldwide notoriety for company. No matter your industry, you will likely have to come to Las Vegas at some point in your business career.
It is very important that you make an outstanding showing at a Las Vegas tradeshow. You will need a sturdy backdrop to present yourself well because of the high foot traffic in the area.
Consumers often mixed with business contacts in a Las Vegas tradeshow, and you never know where the consumers have been.
You need to have an exhibition stand that is prepared for anything. Of the thousands of booth stand companies that are in Las Vegas, we know the best of the best.
We keep up with all of the schedules of companies that we trust so that you do not have to worry about waiting on the right exhibition stand for your presentation.
Give us a call so that you do not have to worry about visiting each and every one of the Las Vegas exhibition stand companies. Focus on the other aspects of your presentation so that you can make a great impression on the right people.
We want to help you by getting the top five designs to you in plenty of time to choose the best one for your needs. We can do this in less time than you can, even if you put your staff to work on the task.
They should be working on other things anyway. Give us a call so that we can go to work for you today in Las Vegas.
You should have time to catch a show while you are here, not worry about the third leg of a tripod that is not level enough!
What type of Stand do you need, and where? What type of services do you need? Stand design Stand Construction Stand Assembly. Lola Sanz Skype trabajo: Your stand at THE Aesthetic Show The Aesthetic Show is a multidisciplinary medical education meeting focused on the expanding field of aesthetic medicine.
It attracts physicians, nurses, practice managers and office staff from every medical disciplines, including: Because the Las Vegas Aesthetic Show enables you to: Generate sales and obtain qualified leads Interact with an elite audience of medical professionals, prospective buyers and potential partner Educate attendees on products and services Make connections with aesthetic professionals in a relaxed networking environment Expand your brand and increase awareness And plenty more!
Need a stand for this exhibition? Saturday, 5 May, to Monday, 7 May, Time: Cromford Mills Booking Arrangement: This Bank Holiday sees the return of the Peak Climate Festival with a wide range of exciting events to raise awareness of climate change.
The threat of climate change will be explored through workshops, talks, stalls, live bands and film - all in the cradle of the Industrial Revolution.
There will also be a selection of stalls where visitors can discover more about how they can help in their own fight against climate change. If you would like to book a place on any of the following talks then please contact Visitor Services either by email visitorservices arkwrightsociety.
Talks programme Saturday, 5th May. Following a stint as a lecturer on Antarctic cruise ships, she became an environmental consultant, specializing in environmental impact assessments for polar projects.
She currently works for the International Polar Foundation UK, communicating on polar science, the environment and climate change. In , he was one of the authors of the IPCC report on climate change and extreme events.
His books include A Guide to the End of the World: His latest book is Waking the Giant: Aubrey Meyer Global Commons Institute is a composer, string musician and award-winning environmental campaigner.
In he founded the Global Commons Institute and later developed the Contraction and Convergence approach to reducing global greenhouse gas emissions; widely acknowledged as the only fair and equitable means by which this may be accomplished.
In recognition of his work,, Aubrey was nominated for the Nobel Peace prize in , by a cross-party group of MPs. The GCCA is a global alliance of over organisations covering environment, aid and development, faith groups and the unions that have come together with the aim of taking action to protect the climate.
Paul was a marine biologist before he started campaigning on peace and environmental issues in the mids.
Subsequently he worked for the Marine Conservation Society and then joined Greenpeace where he was an international campaigner mostly working on the oil industry, climate change and energy issues in different parts of the world.
He lives in Kent on board a traditional Dutch sailing barge or Tjalk. David Strahan Independent energy consultant is an award-winning investigative journalist and documentary film-maker who specializes in business and energy.
He is also the author of The Last Oil Shock: It is about working conceptual and geographical boundaries. It is a democratic process where the experts are those with lived experience.
We can distinguish between the old silo-based approach and the new systemic approach and argue that we need a shift in our thinking and practice to more open to new ideas.
We must hang together lest we hang separately. The total framework within which a UK carbon-rationing regime must be established if the goal really is climate victory is pretty simple in outline for all that.
It depends in fact on one of those solutions which is so simple that no-one could see it until it was formulated by a non-expert thinking outside the box.
It is probably best explained in the words of Aubrey Meyer, the man behind it: Global greenhouse emissions need to be reduced by 60 percent in less than a hundred years.
When governments agree to be bound by such a target, the diminishing amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that the world could release while staying within the target can be calculated for each year of the coming Century.
This is the contraction part of the process. Countries unable to manage within their allocation would, within limits, be able to buy the unused parts of the more frugal countries.
This means, startlingly, just what it says. Over time, we converge on an equal share for every human being of the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases which it is judged safe for humanity as a whole to go on emitting.
The global percentage reduction target and the date for reaching it are decided on the basis of our best scientifically informed estimate of what will give us the best chance of keeping now-inevitable global warming within survivable limits.
We then work towards meeting that target on the understanding that well before we do so, every country will be operating within an equitable national emissions allocation.
This allocation will be equitable because it will depend only on national population, multiplied by the personal carbon budget on which we shall have converged for each global citizen.
As within the suggested UK rationing scheme, trading around these national allocations is permissible, but the overall global emissions quota is firmly capped.
Genuinely equal shares worldwide in a key resource equality not just in theory high-sounding declarations of universal human rights and so forth , but in hard practice, to which the hitherto globally rich and dominant must conform themselves - and to a fixed timescale!
But this response will not survive much careful reflection. For what, actually is the alternative? We have to turn the global-warming super-tanker around, if not quite on a sixpence then certainly within a very limited stretch of sea - and its currently lumbering momentum is powered increasingly by the burgeoning carbon emissions of hugely populous and ambitiously industrializing developing countries.
Whatever may have been the pros and cons. That is now the hard unvarnished truth for global humanity. It would require impossibly high standards to regard all these bodies as lacking in seriousness.
This a very demanding kind of engagement when compared with our current stance, but it is no less than a survival imperative.
The question for this book and this chapter, however is how all this relates to a deep-sustainability understanding of what we are about.
This module is available through Distance Learning. The module explores and analyses critical concepts and terms central to debates over climate change, including risk and uncertainty, adaptation and mitigation, burden sharing, and problems and issues relating to regimes, strategies and policy instruments for addressing global warming.
It evaluates the effectiveness of mitigation and adaptation strategies as well as the flexibility mechanisms. It evaluates risks and uncertainties in the climate change arena and considers alternative approaches such as Contraction and Convergence The method of assessment is by assignment with 4 separate assignments for the module.
Teaching is through an E-Learning portal that enables access to electronic resources and e-mail contact with academic staff.
Richard Black March Anyway his piece correctly laid out the case. The figure that was being bandied about at COP is two tonnes of CO2 or its equivalent per person per year.
In turn, this may be enough to constrain the global average temperature rise to within C at most, which according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC would avoid many of the most damaging projected impacts.
Currently, the average Briton produces about 10 tonnes per year - the average US citizen more, the average Chinese or Indian considerably less.
So a great deal of convergence is implied, and I should be remiss if I did not point up here the important role of Aubrey Meyer and the Global Commons Institute in developing the concept of Contraction and Convergence.
Two tonnes by might be a starting point for discussions; but precisely how much, and by what means, are clearly questions where important nuances pertain.
Where there are grey areas, there is also much room for political wrangling; and of course any agreement on contraction and convergence towards some figure like two tonnes, with whatever caveats, in the end has to be negotiated between governments.
How much is enough? He oversaw the introduction into law of the UK Climate-Act in This prescribed a global convergence-rate to equal per capita shares globally that completed by This was inside a global emissions contraction rate that peaked in and declined to zero emissions by the end of the Century.
He went on, "I do not think that will form the basis of an agreement. I think that there is a sort of attractive justice element to the contraction and convergence idea.
He was also apparently unaware that the Chinese Government had proposed immediate convergence of emissions entitlements in July But Mr Miliband then went further than that.
Can We Afford the Future?: Deciphering Climate Economics Frank Ackerman. This analysis needs to address the tension between markets and planning and the tension between entitlements and investment.
So far, we have not begun to do that. We need to shift the axis of politics from a battle between the left and the right to a battle between those who care about the future and those who want to stay in the past.
The split is still between the North and the South. He says his views are too well known to be sourced. This Islamic Design work and its animation is exquisitely beautiful.
It is by Zarah Hussein and can be retrieved at this link. In , Chinese emissions per capita were about 6 tons, compared to the United States at 25 tons, and Russia at 15 tons.
People who consume a greater than average share of resources, they say, should reduce them to allow for expansion by those who now consume less than average.
Aid Watch New Zealand. To take into account historical inequities in carbon usage, the model holds that industrialised countries should drastically contract their carbon output to an emissions level less than what their respective per capita share would be, to allow the space for majority world countries to continue emitting at a greater rate until their basic development needs are met.
But PM Singh made the commitment in the context of a long-term convergence of per capita emissions. In short, the more the OECD countries brought down their emissions, the less India would allow its emissions to rise" [see below].
In this context, they endorsed the convergence of per capita emissions of developing and developed countries on an equitable basis for tackling climate change.
More recently some ACE Member Organisations have adopted important policy initiatives with regard to sustainability and architectural practice.
The concept of Contraction and Convergence is an internationally supported philosophy for countering climate change and requires a global agreement on the levels of annual global emissions required to remain within safe levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
By adopting Contraction and Convergence as one element of a four-part policy proposal the RIBA aims to achieve greater public awareness of the threat that climate change poses and it is using the policy to lobby influential organisations and government.
The DVD sets out the policy of the CNOA and provides documentaries on several examples of good practice that will permit its members to learn in detail about the benefits of adopting a sustainability-oriented approach to their work.
Several recent important developments at the European Union level offer a favourable context for the launch of specific actions in the EU and in individual Member States.
Declaration and Policy of the Architects of Europe. Kristin Vala Ragnarsd6ttir1 and Harald U. The features of this flexible framework are: Increases in national budgets in response to rising populations would not be permitted after an agreed set date.
This solution may be a more welcomed approach than the Kyoto Protocol which is seen by various countries as unworkable and unfair because:.
Conceived by the Global Commons Institute [GCI] in the early s, the Contraction and Convergence strategy consists of reducing overall emissions of greenhouse gases to a safe level contraction , resulting from every country bringing its emissions per capita to a level which is equal for all countries.
It is intended to form the basis of an international agreement which will reduce carbon dioxide emissions to avoid dangerous climate change, carbon dioxide being the gas that is primarily responsible for changes in the greenhouse effect on Earth.
It is expressed as a simple mathematical formula. This formula can be used as a way for the world to stabilize carbon levels at any level.
It will nonetheless be difficult, if not impossible, to hold temperature increases below this level given current trajectories of greenhouse gas emissions.
The global total of permitted emissions is calculated so as to achieve the objective of limiting and stabilising atmospheric carbon concentrations below the level beyond which runaway climate change becomes unavoidable presently thought to be about parts per million.
This calculated amount of carbon the global carbon budget provides the quantum from which an inclusive, global, equal rights per capita entitlement of carbon is derived; an entitlement that will go to each adult.
Emissions trading can then take place within the context of this scientifically calculated carbon budget and the rights based mechanism for distribution.
The implementation of a framework founded on these principles will require tough negotiation, particularly around the speed of convergence to an equal per capita entitlement of carbon dioxide emissions, which can be no more than one and a half tonnes per person by assuming a global population of 9 billion.
Calculation of the initial carbon budget takes account of the present capacity of the global sinks: The equal per capita entitlement of carbon emissions can be pre-distributed as carbon coupons to consumers who could then negotiate the sale of these coupons.
Under-consumers generally the poor will have coupons to sell to over-consumers generally the rich. Market forces will work for the poor as well as to reduce carbon emissions; a key feature of the scheme.
Putting the poor in control is a crucial development goal, as evidenced by the recent moves by donor agencies such as the International Red Cross to simply give cash to the poor.
Recent publications testify to the efficacy of this approach. This commitment can be written into the global agreements.
So also can the proportion of the entitlements that would be held by the country level group to cover communal facilities such as schools and hospitals.
No other framework quantifies allowable carbon emissions against an atmospheric CO2 concentration. No other framework allocates entitlements of this amount in a way which is to the advantage of underprivileged people in both the countries that are yet to industrialise and the rapidly industrialising countries.
Time is of the essence. This is well understood by health professionals. Our traumatised globe is nearing the end of its golden hour.
For the sake of present and future generations, we have to move quickly for our interventions to successfully heal the globe. Beyond issues relating to personal tradable emissions are discussed - with a view to moving towards a more stringent contraction and convergence global environmental future.
Difficulties relating to the costs and administration and likely equity impacts of such a carbon trading scheme, and whether individuals require or are entitled to the same number of credits all need to be resolved in the early years to It is possible that rationing schemes prove unworkable at the individual level and are easier to apply at the industrial level via the fuel supplier or motor anufacturing company.
The latter involves less actors; though a wide public debate and understanding is still required. Halcrow - Images of the Future.
Its down to us. Its the fossil fuels stupid "Curiously, Sachs makes no mention of contraction and convergence and personal carbon rationing, the solutions endorsed in The Age of Stupid.
Contraction and convergence is a policy framework for mitigating climate change that has been endorsed by governments, non-governmental organisations, environmentalists, and scientists all around the world, including by African nations, the very people that Sachs wants to release from poverty.
Climate change is too serious to leave to economists. We are all responsible for all. Contraction and convergence is being kept secret because those in power fear having to do what we elected them to do: Burning fossil fuels irrespective of the planetary consequences makes big money for big business.
The media are gagged by financial dependence on advertisements of cars, air travel, and distant holidays. It is down to us. The perfect diet may not have been invented, but there is sufficient research to show that a plant-based diet high in fruits and vegetables, with minimal red meats is best.
Wealthier, health-conscious western consumers are already adopting such diets, but rapidly developing nations are undergoing the same damaging nutrition transition that the west underwent in the twentieth century, and meat consumption is rapidly increasing.
Public health researchers are now promoting contraction and convergence policies, where those on western diets cut back their consumption of meat and dairy, whilst allowing people in the poorer developing areas, e.
Compassion in World Farming. Allocation would be based on an interpolation between the current situation and the future equal per capita emission allowances.
Human-caused increases in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, chiefly carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion, are the likely cause of contemporary climate change.
The changes in the last 50 years are unprecedented even in geological history. The challenge of scale that it will take to reduce the carbon going into the ecosystem is daunting.
Energy efficiencies are an approach that can be tackled immediately: Cicerone lays out approaches to geo-engineering that are possibilities that affect the factors of population, energy consumption and technology.
A global per-capita emissions cap agreement contraction and convergence model seems to be the most necessary step in reversing the carbon impact that is projected in the future, particularly from developing countries.
Research and examination of a science-based response to our impending self-inflicted catastrophe is critical. However, putting carbon genie back in the bottle is essentially a zero-sum game, once its released it takes eons to absorb it back into the global structure.
And time is of the essence; a 3 to 5 degree temperature rise in this century is inevitable, bringing us to the cusp of catastrophic climate change in the relatively near future.
Challenges Beyond , summarizes the current approaches and challenges for conservation. Here is an excerpt describing their outlook for the future:.
We are far from including biodiversity in our conventional measures of well-being, which focus on wealth creation and internationally recognized estimates of GDP.
Although there have been attempts to redefine these including, for instance, the Human Development Index and green national accounts , the mainstream view of well-being and of national development remains focused on narrowly defined economic growth.
Furthermore, the current recession only strengthens the emphasis on growth. The transition to sustainability will not be easy, but it is central to securing a future for biodiversity.
Conservation strategies, in concert with other environmental policies, must address seemingly intractable and politically unpalatable issues.
In both developed and emerging economies, we need to reduce the carbon and material throughput demanded by current patterns of production and consumption if we are to create viable and democratically acceptable trajectories of contraction and convergence in resource use.
In parallel, we must recognize that successful human development agendas are underpinned by functional ecosystems, and by biodiversity.
As another friend said recently: We are especially grateful to Philippe Sibaud who authored this report. He spent over a year unearthing the information and painstakingly analysing and reflecting on its implications, to build the foundations of this report.
Philippe has been involved in the oil industry for 18 years, first as an operator and then as a trader of crude oil on the international markets. He left the industry in to concentrate on environmental and social projects.
We very much appreciate your perseverance and generosity, Philippe, and so do our partners and allies. Thanks to our Associates and Partners who alerted us to the urgent need to analyse the global trends in the extractive industry, to get an overall perspective of what is going on.
After 25 years of working with partners across the world, suddenly things changed. We thank the communities at the frontline of this intensifying wave for sharing your stories of courage and tragedy in the battle for sanity.
Many others have provided willing advice and support in various ways: For their creativity, time and energy, our thanks to: And finally, special thanks also to those who endorsed the Report: If we are to mitigate the effects of climate change, we need a rapid reduction in our prodution of greenhouse gases.
Through the IPCC, attempts are being made to do this e,g. Copenhagcn and Kyoto Unfortunately, such reductions only include the developed world and the targets set have been small compared to what the climate science indicates is needed.
This approach starts by setting a maximum safe atmospheric concentration for carbon dioxide, then estimates what level of global emissions gives rise to this, then apportions this to each country based on its population.
Countries that currently produce more than this largely the developed world can buy the right to emit more from those that emit less than their quota largely the developing world.
Over time the total right to emit would be reduced until the safe level of emissions is reached Contraction and Convergence is seen by many as the only ethically sound way of selling reduction targets that have a reasonable chance of gaining support from the world community.
In order to make the required reductions we will have to simultaneously reduce the amount of energy we use to achieve a set goal e.
In the following we look at the plethora of renewable sources we can access. In Chapter 13 we saw how emissions can be reduced through energy efficiency, or the climate directly engineered.
Chapter 13 also presented one of many possible combinations of changes to our energy supply that has the potential to make major carbon savings, together with an example abatement curve.
Hammond, Jessica Lamond, David G. It looks like it. The Bottom Line is that: The US would not even agree to the Kyoto Protocol, so the GDR idea while intensifying the blame-game and so perhaps appealing to some Develolping Countries, in reality simply inflames an existing disagreement.
It embodies the economic political reality, that adjustment to equal per capita emissions entitlements will take time. It is a rational, flexible and transparent concept that holds out the best hope of all urgent proposals that might form a basis of an environmentally and economically rational global agreement on climate change mitigation.
The contraction and convergence idea was at the core of the proposals for international agreement that are part of the Garnaut Climate Change Review, commissioned by and presented to the Australian Prime Minister and all State Premiers R.
This report is a collaborative effort between leading climate change economists and the Australian Treasury.
Two scenarios were developed jointly with the Garnaut Climate Change Review. These more stylised scenarios assume united global action, with all countries taking on emission reduction obligations from This represents an optimal post agreement.
National contributions are based on a contraction and convergence approach, whereby the allocation of emission rights among countries converges from current levels to equal per capita rights by Garnaut, a.
The Garnaut scenario is consistent with stabilisation at around ppm by ; the Garnaut scenario concentrations peak above ppm, then decline to around ppm by consistent with stabilisation at ppm soon thereafter.
Assuming potential problems could be overcome, Contraction and Convergence offers a stunningly simple way of applying the same environmental standards to all.
At the same time it would clearly demand more action from some than others. Thousands of miles from Tuvalu, African farmers are reporting consistently shorter rain-fed growing seasons.
In large areas of Africa the production of maize is expected to fall significantly as a result of changing seasons and drought caused by climate change.
Whilst our governments debate what standards we should all be expected to reach, millions of people are already facing the harsh realities of a changing climate.
A global climate agreement is needed urgently, but it will only work if all countries are involved and prepared to do as much as they can, not as little as they can get away with.
Lets hope all countries, the US included, will rise to the challenge and ensure a sustainable, equal future for all.
Insurers can play a part in helping mitigation policies to be more effective. We need a global deal. These countries are understandably frustrated that they are likely to be denied the historic opportunity that we in the rich countries had to grow their economies and lift their people out of poverty without having to take account of the real costs of greenhouse gas emissions.
For developing countries to agree to a global deal in which they take on differentiated convergence targets, the date and rate of convergence of the rich countries would need to consider the historical responsibility of the rich countries for the bulk of the problem and also their far greater capacity to pay for the adjustment costs.
Another factor that is frequently neglected is that such proposals imply continued multi-decade economic growth of the rich countries with per capita emissions far above average.
There is no alternative to this given where we are of course, but this needs to be considered in weighing the contributions the rich countries should make to a global deal.
To summarise, the following factors should be considered in negotiating the date and trajectories of contraction and convergence proposals:.
Ross Garnaut explicitly adopted convergence to equal per capita emissions as a central plank of his recommendations in his Review. That is, there would be a global cap on annual greenhouse gas emissions which would be set to decline year after year until a safe level is reached.
Consistent with this cap, allocations of permissible emissions would be made to individual countries reflecting their existing emissions and state of economic development.
Over time per capita emissions would converge to a common level. The Limits to Travel David Metz. Note that in the Delayed Action scenario the burden sharing regime only applies after This involves emissions from industrialised nations reducing contracting and emissions from all nations converging to an overall target consistent with stabilising GHG concentrations in the atmosphere.
Over time, emissions would contract and converge to an equal share per person. To achieve this equitable distribution, each of us in the UK would need to reduce our average annual carbon dioxide emissions from 10 tonnes to two tonnes.
Contraction and Convergence is the science-based, global climate-policy framework, proposed to the United Nations since by the Global Commons Institute.
It is supported by many climate change scientists and policy makers, including the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution.
The rates for Contraction: Convergence are compared in this Animation as: Fellow of Royal Institute of British Architects "For his challenging and inspirational promotion of environmental issues, in particular his development of the concept of Contraction and Convergence.
The ice caps are shrinking and global weather patterns are unpredictable; environmentalists believe that the world is moving into unknown territory.
There is a desperate need to create an effective policy for preserving healthy ecosystems by providing incentives and the resources to do so.
The Contract and convergence approach promoted by UN is a well thought through and potentially powerful approach which also addresses fair distribution.
Core objectives with optional sub-topics. Climate change as an environmental hazard: Define the relationship between adaptation and mitigation and the health co-benefits of each.
Demonstrate clinical, leadership and management skills for low carbon healthcare. Describe how to obtain feedback from staff and patients, analyse processes, identify improvements and plan how these could be implemented and evaluated e Demonstrate awareness of the role of doctors as managers, including seeking ways to continually improve the environmental impact of care, and the use and prioritisation of resources.
Demonstrate advocacy skills for action on climate change and the determinants of health. Explain the basic scientific evidence base for global warming and climate change.
Make reference to systems theory and importance of feedback loops normative and amplificatory in auto-regulation of climate and global biological systems.
Critically appraise scientific evidence linking climate change and health. Access information sources on climate change, health and mitigation measures and use the information in relation to patient care, health promotion, giving advice and information to patients and research and education.
If international negotiations can achieve a fair Contraction and Convergence target within enough time, there is every likelihood people can grow old, and perhaps even older, in a carbon-constrained world.
Paul Read is a research psychologist, public health lecturer and Fellow at the Monash Sustainability Institute, where his work focuses on human needs and their sustainability across countries and time.
Questions for our political leaders. Questions the media should be asking in the carbon tax debate. How confident are you that the carbon tax you are proposing will put Australia on a path to that outcome?
As the unfolding ecological catastrophe which human behaviour is visiting on the earth continues to accelerate, the politicians meet around the globe to plan their latest attempts to stimulate economic activity.
No thought given to the now obvious fact that it is this very activity which is responsible for the catastrophe. Instead of owning up to the obvious, and immediately implementing policies of economic contraction and convergence, they seem determined to let greed be their motive and their guide for as long as they feel able to get away with it.
Action for the Earth. It attracts a globally-divided whole, back through equity in adversity cadentially to the unity we need to experience to survive climate change.
If there is something better, we had better find it soon. Its Principles are precaution and equity. Calculating future emissions contraction on the basis of concentrations and sink evidence is a non-random way of responding to the objective of the UNFCCC.
It makes compliance with its objective less unlikely than does the randomness of the negotiations there so far, as for example at COP After a very long time this has become a bad habit.
Take for example these comments from Fred Pearce in the Daily Telegraph while ago: And the boys at Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth have run something close to a vendetta against the guy who has developed and tirelessly promoted the idea - a pony-tailed, violin-playing, South African exile called Aubrey Meyer.
There is no alternative. Not least because the deepening darkness increases the overall danger of worsening Confusion and Climate Chaos.
The convergence level is calculated at a level that resulting global emissions follow the agreed global emission path. It might be more difficult for some countries to reduce emissions compared to others, e.
Therefore, emission trading could be allowed to level off differences between allowances and actual emissions. As current per capita emissions differ greatly between countries some developing countries with very low per capita emissions, e.
This would generate a flow of resources from developed to developing countries if these emission allowances are traded.
They are from observations made at the Mauna Loa Observatory. At a current value of The standard conversion rate is 2.
Over 50 years the average annual increase has more than doubled from around 2 Gt C in to 4. The Carbon Budget Challenge: According to the principle of common but differentiated responsibility in international environmental law: But it is not just the current rate of CO2 emissions that is important.
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